Last Updated on : Saturday, 01 July, 2017 11:37:09 PM



Damselflies of Sabah | Family of Aeshnidae  |  Family Libellulidae  |
Red Dragonfly of Sabah  |  CHINESE VERSION  |
Ovipositor or Vulvar Lamina of Female Odonata  |

PDF download : GUIDE TO COMMON DRAGONFLIES IN BORNEO

Common dragonflies in Sabah, Malaysia
(Information of Dragonflies of North Borneo)


HOW TO DISTINGUISH MALE AND FEMALE ODONATA
(DRAGONFLIES AND DAMSELFLIES)

Males and females can be distinguished as follows:


1- Females typically have a broader abdomen than males, and female damselflies and darners (Aeshnidae) have a prominent ovipositor under segments 8 and 9.

HOW TO DISTINGUISH MALE AND FEMALE ODONATA

DRAGONFLY DAMSELFLY
Type 1 Female Type 2 Female

ALL Female damselflies have a ovipositor

NOT ALL female dragonflies have a ovipositor. These female have a Vulvar lamina instead ONE family (Aeshnidae) of dragonflies have a ovipositor  

Vulvar lamina

Ovipositor structure Ovipositor structure

The females of all damselflies and some dragonflies (Aeshnidae and Petaluridae families ) have a fully formed ovipositor on the underside of abdominal segments 8 and 9.

Ovipositor is a complicated structure  used to insert eggs into plant tissue, mud, or other substrate.

Ovipositor structure containing :

1- Paired valves
2- Basel cutting blades,  .
3- Paired stylus, which is a thin, needle like projection, at the end of each of the two valves of the ovipositor.
4- Some species (Gynacantha basiguttata) have sharp anal claws at segment 10. That perhaps serves as anchor to stabilize the abdomen while the basal plate is cutting hole and inserting eggs into plant.

Female dragonfly that do not have Ovipositor Structure will have a Vulvar lamina with a conspicuous “V” incision


3- Male dragonflies have 3 appendages at the abdomen tip, male damselflies have 4; females of both have only 2 such appendages.


1- Males have a bump containing the accessory genitalia under the second abdominal segment; females lack this.

HOW TO DISTINGUISH MALE AND FEMALE ODONATA


4- An important feature for identification in some families is the vulvar lamina under the 9th abdominal segment that supports the eggs about to be laid.


Ovipositor or Vulvar lamina
of Female Dragonflies and Damselflies


The females of all damselflies and some dragonflies (Aeshnidae and Petaluridae families ) have a fully formed ovipositor, which is a complicated structure containing paired valves and cutting blades, on the underside of abdominal segments 8 and 9. The ovipositor is used to insert eggs into plant tissue, mud, or other substrate.

Some species have a stylus, which is a thin, needle like projection, at the end of each of the two valves of the ovipositor.

Vulvar lamina with a conspicuous “V” incision

More on Ovipositor of dragonflies of Malaysia...
More about WINGS of dragonflies and damselflies ...


Dragonflies and Damselflies feed on insects

A small dragonfly eat mosquitoes every day. While the larger dragonflies eat small insects like moth, butterflies, flies and sometimes each other.

Dragonflies are not venomous and they kill and eat by ripping and tearing apart their prey usually head first.

From their hunting habits we can separate dragonflies into :
1-Hawkers

2-
Darters

Hawkers are often seen continuously flying in circles. They scan the area, attack, eat in flight and re attack.

Darters can be seen resting on a twig or leaf and darts out every now and then to attack a prey flying by and then return to the twig.


Orthetrum sabina

Male
2007-02-23 MEROTAI

Lathrecista asiatica

 Male
2007-06-24 SG TAWAU
 

Orthetrum testaceum

Female ♀
2007-01-02 BOMBALAI


Neurothemis terminata

Male
2006-10-05 MEROTAI

Agriocnemis pygmaea

Female
2007-03-10 MEROTAI
 

Agriocnemis femina oryzae

Female
2006-11-01 MEROTAI

Pseudagrion pilidorsum

Female
2007-02-19 SG TAWAU


 


Favourite habitat of dragonflies and damselflies :

Seepage Forest Stream Open Stream River Marsh Lake Pond
Seepage
滴流
Forest Stream
森林溪流
Open Stream
溪流
River
河流
Marsh
沼澤
Lake
湖泊
Pond
池塘
Lower Stream Mid Stream Upper Stream
Lower Stream
下游  
Mid Stream
中流
Upper Stream
上游
Shallow stream with sands and cobbles, water ran slowly and stagnant passing highly diversified habitats along river. Shrubs and grasses along the stream. Site totally exposed to the sunlight.
Provided varieties of substrates which consist of stones, rocky, cobbles and sandy. Water surface partially covered by canopies of trees and shrubs. Slow and fast flowing water.
Rich of substrates like stone and big rocky. Stream was too small with very fast flowing water, provided open site which is totally exposed to the sunlight, deep and very crystal clear water

IDENTIFICATION CHARTS OF BORNEO DRAGONFLIES
The following are some colour image illustrations of common dragonflies in Borneo:

Field Guide to common Neurothemis in Sabah
Identification Guide
to common Neurothemis in Sabah
Identification Guide to common Red Dragonfly in Sabah
Identification Guide
to common Red Dragonflies in Sabah

All red dragonflies found in Sabah belong to the same Family Libellulidae


Family Aeshnidae
Indaeschna grubaueri
The only Borneo species in this genus
 
Tetrathemis irregularis
Family: Libellulidae
Tetrathemis irregularis
 inhabits rainforest streams

Tetrathemis irregularis have relatively very large compound eyes among dragonflies.

Family: Libellulidae
Genus: Lathrecista

Lathrecista asiatica
海神蜻蜓

Only 1 species worldwide in this Genus Lathrecista.
 


HOW TO DISTINGUISH MALE AND FEMALE ODONATA
(DRAGONFLIES AND DAMSELFLIES)


Males and females can be distinguished as follows:
Males have a bump containing the accessory genitalia under the second abdominal segment; females lack this.


Diplacodes trivialis
侏儒蜻蜓


Diplacodes trivialis are seen everywhere , usually on the ground and behave in a friendly manner.

ABDOMEN DIFFERENT BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE DRAGONFLIES

Most male dragonfly abdomen is often narrower at segment 3, whereas the female abdomen is more robust.

 

Orthetrum sabina
杜松蜻蜓
 
Neurothemis terminata Female 35mm
Neurothemis terminata
Female ♀35mm
Type 1 Clear Wings
2016-02-29 BUKIT GEMOK
Neurothemis ramburii
Neurothemis ramburii
善變蜻蜓
common in disturbed habitats
The Largest and Smallest species of Dragonflies in Borneo
The Largest and Smallest species of Dragonflies in Borneo
Anax panybeus
Nannophya pygmaea
WINGS of dragonflies and damselflies
WINGS of dragonflies and damselflies
 
Tholymis tillarga 雲斑蜻
Tholymis tillarga
widespread in Borneo and active at dawn and dusk
 

Identification Guide to
 Orthetrum pruinosum
 
Identification Guide to  Orthetrum pruinosum
Identification Guide to
Orthetrum pruinosum
slow flowing streams of Borneo forests
Orthetrum chrysis
Identification Guide to
♂♀Orthetrum chrysis
common in marshes and clear streams of Borneo
General morphology of a male dragonfly
Ictinogomphus decoratus
Male ♂65mm 2016-02-28 BUKIT GEMOK
G eneral morphology  of a male dragonfly
Identification Guide to Gynacantha basiguttata
Identification Guide to
♂♀Gynacantha basiguttata
a common species of Borneo Island

Gynacantha basiguttata (Selys, 1882)

Identification Guide to Oligoaeschna foliacea
Identification Guide to
♂♀Oligoaeschna foliacea
a rare species from swampy forests of Lupar River in Sarawak, Malaysia
Identification Guide to Aethriamanta aethra
Identification Guide to
Aethriamanta aethra
a rare species from wetlands of Borneo Island
 

Identification Guide to
Camacinia gigantea
the largest of the Libellulidae
 
Identification Guide to Brachydiplax chalybea.
Identification Guide to
Brachydiplax chalybea
Widespread in Borneo Island
 

Family of Gomphid

Referred to as clubtail dragonflies The name refers to the club-like widening of the end of the abdomen (abdominal segments 7 through 9). However, this club is usually less pronounced in females and is entirely absent in some species.

Clubtails have small, widely separated compound eyes, a trait they share with the Petaluridae and with damselflies.

 


Family: Gomphidae
Genus: Macrogomphus

 

Macrogomphus quadratus  Male Macrogomphus quadratus FEMALE
Macrogomphus quadratus
Male
♂ 2007-06-10 BUKIT GEMOK
Female ♀76mm 2007-07-08 TAWAU RIVER


Family: Gomphidae
Genus: Sieboldius

 

Sieboldius japponicus Male
Sieboldius japponicus
Male
♂83mm 2009-08-31 TAWAU HILLS PARK


Family: Gomphidae
Genus: Phaenandrogomphus

 

Phaenandrogomphus safei
Male  2015 SAFE Project site
Photo credits Sarah Luke and Rory Dow
http://www.safeproject.net/news/a-new-species-of-dragonfly


Family: Gomphidae
Genus: Ictinogomphus

 

Ictinogomphus decoratus Male
Ictinogomphus decoratus
Male ♂65mm 2016-02-28 BUKIT GEMOK
Female unknown

 

Deformed dragonflies can be an indication of poor quality of water in lakes and rivers.

This is a female with pair deformed fore wing due to problems in emergence or water contamination.


Dragonflies are common in Malaysia and can be found all around the globe in every continent except in Antarctica.

Dragonfly are  very fast flyers, can be very colourful, harmless, timid and love water. We see them dipping their tail into water, skimming on the surface, resting on twigs and darting here and there and they are very difficult to capture. T hey are harmless to humans but to other insects, they are fearsome flying predator with the most advance aviation system for aerial combat. If size doesn't matter, a dragonfly can down the latest US jet fighter Raptor in seconds.

Speed : Can reach 60km per hour.
Range : Detected to cover a total distance of 137km per day.
Agility : Can instantly change direction while at high speed. Humans can't take that much G force.


Vision : Compound eyes of about 26,000 lenses with individual sensors capable of 360 deg vision. Can focus up to 20 feet. Focusing speed more than twice of humans.

Dragonflies rely almost on their eyes to find a mate.


Audio : Dragonflies are deaf. Therefore you do not need to whisper when you are near them.


Camouflage : Colours and patterns on dragonflies are NOT for camouflage. Dragonflies employ a kind of optical illusion called motion camouflage to trick their prey.
They can move in a certain pattern where the prey will see them as stationary, at a different location or very far but in fact they are actually already closing down fast on the prey.


There are 2 general types  of ODONATA :
1. The Zygoptera which is more commonly called Damselflies. When at rest their wings are folded back like most other flying insects.


2. The Anisoptera which is commonly known as the True Dragonflies. They are larger and when resting, their wings are opened to the sides.

All ODONATA have 2 pair of wings. And when in flight the two different pair move inverse way meaning from the front, we'll see they'll form an 'X'. That's where the Star Wars probably came up with the X wing fighter.

Where can we find them?

By middle of the day when temperatures are getting hot, males became more active in their searches for females.

Dragonflies spend most of their life in larvae form in a pond, lake or stream. Different species may prefer different type of habitat. Some prefer shady spots, some sunny, some still water, some flowing, some prefer clear water, some prefer muddy. They live only for a few weeks or months as an adult dragonfly compared to a few months or a few years as larvae. The larvae are predators too feeding on mosquito larvae, other insects, tadpoles and even small fish. As larvae or more specifically called nymph, they instead fall prey to larger fish and bigger nymphs. As adults dragonflies fall prey to fish, reptiles and amphibians usually during mating and laying eggs when they are most vulnerable. Some may get entangled in a spider web and become prey but unlike other insects, due to their speed and agility, they are not an easy catch for birds.


Associations between dragonflies (Odonata) and their forest habitats in North Borneo: implications for conservation.

Albert George Orr
ENS, Griffith University, Nathan Q 4111

ABSTRACT

The Order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) includes nearly 6000 species worldwide. Owing to their charismatic appeal, ease of observation, and a life history which depends on both suitable freshwater and terrestrial habitats, they are increasingly carrying the flag for invertebrate conservation, both as indicators of environmental health, and as a group of special intrinsic value deserving priority protection in their own right.
The greatest species richness of Odonata occurs in the Oriental and Neotropical regions, which boast respectively 1666 and 1636 described species. It is estimated that 25-30% of the total fauna is yet to be described in both regions. Within the Oriental region 23 of the 31 extant odonate families occur, 20 of which are found in Malaysia. At present about 360 species are recorded from Malaysia, 235 from West Malaysia and 275 from East Malaysia. Within Malaysia 80 species and 20 genera are known only from the peninsular, whereas 136 species and 10 genera are known only from North Borneo. However taken overall the Bornean fauna is much more distinct, with 46% species endemic to the island.
It is believed that the greater part of the world tropical odonate fauna is dependent on forest habitats and unpolluted streams for its survival. The island of Borneo was originally almost completely covered by closed canopy tropical rainforest. Owing to an aseasonal, hot, per humid climate and high rainfall, forests were well supplied with streams and standing water. Consequently the rich, largely endemic odonate fauna must have evolved in association with these forests, and non-forest species, common today in disturbed land, must formerly have been rare opportunists in forest gaps or localized lacustrine species. It is estimated that at least 70 % of the fauna is presently confined to forest habitats and probably depends on forest for its survival. This study relates quantitatively odonate distribution to a mosaic of complex tropical rain forest formations in Brunei Darussalam. The tiny sultanate of Brunei still enjoys about 80% forest cover, representative of all the seven major formations found on the island and a great many of the 30+ sub-formations, and results from a nation-wide survey of odonates from most habitats are considered to be broadly applicable to the entire island of Borneo and many other parts of equatorial south-east Asia.
Greatest odonate diversity, both Alpha and Beta, and greatest endemicity, is found in the primary lowland mixed dipterocarp forests, especially those growing in highly dissected landscapes such as occur at the Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, at the edges of the central uplands. High diversity and endemicity is also found in swamp forest, especially freshwater swamp, with certain endangered peat swamp formations also important. The highly vulnerable kerangas forest harbours fewer species, none uniquely, and the mangrove fauna is still more depauperate, with only a single wide-ranging specialist restricted to this habitat. Secondary dipterocarp forest is certainly less rich in odonates than primary forest, but lack of sites for parallel comparisons makes it difficult at present to state how serious this effect is. These results emphasize the importance of conserving a wide range of primary forest formations to achieve satisfactory odonate conservation, a strategy congruent with the conservation of charismatic land-based vertebrates and forest peoples.

 

Dragonflies in West Malaysia

West Malaysia hosts over 230 species of dragonflies and damselflies, which is roughly double the European total. Although few of these are endemic, many have restricted Sundaic distributions, occurring only in Malaysia, southern Thailand and Sumatra.

Natural history tours included Fraser’s Hill and Taman Negara.

Interesting area of peat swamp forest, a habitat seldom visited by tourists of any kind.

A short distance from Kuala Lumpur is the old and charming British hill-station of Fraser’s Hill, small streams in and below the montage forest here are sure to yield a number of exciting species and birds are very easy to watch here.

Small streams at mid-altitude are sure to hold the robust damselfly Devadatta argyoides, the golden-winged Euphaea ochracea and the widespread but glorious Aristocypha fenestrella.

A key endemic to find here is the unmistakeable Calicnemia rectangulata, which is restricted to the mountain ranges of West Malaysia.

Taman Negera is an area of incomparable humid rainforest. This is one of the oldest tracts of rainforest in the world and supports some quite fantastic beasts, including one of the largest dragonflies in the world, the monstrous Tetracanthagyna plagiata.

Time will also be spent exploring some lowland peat swamp forest – a habitat which although depauperate in birds and mammals hosts an interesting and specialised Odonate fauna.

Here is a good place to  search for the rare and local damselfly Podolestes buwaldai.

Inevitably during the trip we will spend some time around Kuala Lumpur, enjoying some of the finest food in the world (here the best of Malay, Chinese and Indian food is available) – a mouth-watering prospect for many.

In Kuala Lumpur  visit the ponds of the Botanical Gardens to look for the common and widespread species.


Neurothemis fluctuans Rhyothemis triangularis (Kirby, 1889)  三角蜻蜓 Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842) 庆褐蜻 (樂仙蜻蜓)

Dragonflies attract much attention of naturalists for their vibrant colour.  The showy striking colour of their body amazes many onlookers.

Odonates (dragonflies and damselflies)  are insects  which contains three Suborders: 1) Anisoptera (dragonflies), 2) Zygoptera (damselflies), 3) Anisozygoptera.

The two former suborders of dragonflies and damselflies are widespread whereas Anisozygoptera is represented by one single species in Japan and one in the Himalayas. 

There are more than 5000  odonate species worldwide. In Malaysia more than 300 species have been found. Dragonflies  are helping  us in  keeping down the numbers of mosquitoes and we tend to forget that mosquitoes form a large part of the diet of many predators including dragonflies and birds.

Photography on dragonflies is now getting popular among the nature lovers. Morning is the best time for a beginner in photography dragonflies. Most dragonflies  require that their flight muscles reach a certain minimum temperature before they are able to fly efficiently. Often insects are sluggish in the morning as they wait for the temperatures to rise enough to get their flight muscles warm. In a cool morning the dragonflies are much more approachable. And the dew condensed on the dragonflies wings often makes for a nice photo.

In  cool, dewy mornings, one  may find dragonflies covered with dew. They usually hide in a more sheltered spot, among weeds or cattails. They won't be going anywhere until morning sun fully warm them up.

Dragonflies  have favourite perches location. One can get as close as physically possible to the perching site and set up the camera. For macro close up work, a small F-stop is usually required (F16 or so). The dragonfly will leave during the setup, but will normally return within minutes  landing on the same stem tip in the same physical position.

Some dragonflies hunt into the late afternoon aided by their excellent eye-sight. They perch on twigs, grass blades, or leaves at the water’s edge, waiting to grab small insects that come within range. A dragonfly usually perches with its body in a horizontal position. They  take  an upright posture as if  doing a handstand. It had assumed this “obelisk posture” to cool itself by minimising the rays of the sun ray to the body.
Dragonflies are usually found near ponds, lakes, rivers, or even puddles of water that are quite permanent. When they are not flying, you can find them perching on leaves or twigs at the water’s edge.

Dragonfly are magnificent flying machines. It can fly at speeds of nearly 100kph. It can hover like a helicopter, fly vertically, stop or turn sharply in the midst of rapid flight, even fly backwards. It has the best eyesight among insects.


Feats and  Facts


Fossils of prehistoric dragonflies have been found with wingspans of 30 inches and body lengths up to 18 inches.

Adults of Odonata can fly backwards or forwards and even hover like a helicopter. They can do these incredible aerial tricks because their two pairs of wings move independently of each other, in contrast to most other insects.

The fastest recorded insect flight belongs to the Australian dragonfly, Austrophlbia costalis, which can reach 36 miles per hour over short distances.

Some dragonflies can have between 10,000 and 50,000 individual eyes (commatidia) in each compound eye.

The naiad shoots out its labium very fast to catch a prey, and the forward movement requires less than three one-hundredths of a second.

The common green darner found in the United States, Anax junuios, migrates north into Canada each summer. In the fall, the offspring of these dragonflies will make their way back to the south.

The largest damselfly, Megaloprepus coerulatus, has a wing spread of more than seven inches. This damselfly is found in Central and South America.

A dragonfly nymph can use jet propulsion to move forward very quickly. By pulling water into the rectal chamber of its abdomen and then shooting it out.

The word for dragonfly in Japanese is "tombo", but many years ago dragonflies were called "akitsu." Japan was once called Akitsushima, meaning "The Island of the Dragon-fly."

Adult dragonflies and damselflies catch and eat insects while flying. They eat anything small enough for them to handle, including flies, wasps, moths, and beetles. Adults often fly away from their nymphal home in the water to another area where they feed for several weeks before returning to the pond, lake, or stream to mate and lay eggs.
Mating of dragonflies and damselflies is peculiar in that the mate holds the female behind the head while the female receives the male reproductive cells.
Mating pairs will stay clasped for several minutes to several hours depend on species. They even fly while joined together.
Dragonflies and damselflies undergo incomplete metamorphosis (egg-nymph-adult). The eggs are laid in water or in water plants and hatch into an aquatic nymph (naiad). The naiad stage lasts for a few weeks to almost five years. The nymphs must shed their skin, or molt, in order to grow in size, and they can molt 10 to 15 times before becoming mature. The mature nymph crawls out of the water onto the stem of an aquatic plant, where the adult emerges from the skin of the nymph, dries, and expands its wings, and flys away in search of food.
Dragonflies are different from damselflies
 Dragonflies hold their wings out from the body when at rest.
 Damselflies rest with their wings held together over their backs.
Dragonflies and damselflies wings are transparent with many veins. Most species in Sabah have beautiful colour patterns. The coloration of the male dragonfly often differs from that of the female.

Dragonfly's colours are due to pigmentation and will fade upon death. This is unlike other insects colours which reflective qualities of their cuticle,
Their mouthparts include large mandibles for biting and chewing. They have small hairline antennae.
There are 5,000 species of dragonflies and damselflies. About 500 to 1500 species are to be described and named in the world.

 

Odonates are insects with two large compound eyes, two pairs of delicate and membranous wings, and a long slender abdomen. Their life history occurs in two different stages: aquatic and aerial stages. The larval stage is spent in aquatic environment, and the adulthood is in terrestrial.

Both the larvae and adults are good hunters. Prey may be stalked or ambushed.

Dragonflies receive less attention due to their less economical significance compared to other insects such as butterflies.

Yet, they are good  indicator for aquatic ecosystem, and the larvae (nymphs) are proven to be good biocontrol of insect pests.


A Guide to the Dragonflies of Borneo: Their Identification and Biology By: Orr A G

The first guide to the dragonflies of Borneo Island. The most comprehensive coverage for any tropical region. 275 species (60%) occurring on the island are described and illustrated in photographs and 25 beautiful plates of 1/2-wing drawings. Chapters on biology, classification and ecology, as well as a complete checklist. 19.5 x 26.5 cm.

Many more yet to be discovered, Borneo has one of the richest and most exciting dragonfly faunas in the world. More than 40% species found nowhere else, making Borneo the most distinctive sub-region of Sundaland. It is home to such spectacular species as Tetracanthagyna plagiata, the heaviest of all dragonflies, many beautiful picture-winged chlorocyphids and euphaeids, and high-altitude endemics such as Matronoides cyaneipennis restricted to Mount Kinabalu and nearby mountains.

 
The first guide to Borneo’s dragonflies, is also the most comprehensively illustrated account of any large tropical dragonfly fauna yet published. Species are figured by natural photographs and half-wing drawings. About 60% of known species are shown, including almost all the distinctive and common species likely to be encountered by a casual visitor. Particular attention is given to the identification of the common but difficult medium-sized red dragonflies of which there are several.

The text augments the illustrations and provides useful information on biology. Introductory chapters discuss structure and general biology, ecology and conservation, faunistics and biogeography and collecting techniques and photography. There is a complete and up to date checklist. Illustrated keys to families of adults give the reader an understanding of the structures used in classifying dragonflies and augment the usefulness of the illustrations of entire insects. Main larval forms are shown. This book will be useful not just in Borneo, but also in neighboring parts of south-east Asia.
 


A Pocket Guide to Dragonflies of Peninsular MalaysiaA Pocket Guide to Dragonflies of Peninsular Malaysia By AG Orr

127 pages, colour illus, map.
Natural History Publications
 

 

Dragonflies are among the most beautiful of insects. Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are home to more than 230 species (twice the number found in Europe). They include some of the most exquisite forms found anywhere in the World. They occur wherever there is suitable fresh water habitat. Many species frequent the borders of garden ponds in our largest cities, perching on lily pads with glowing red bodies in striking contrast to their green platform. Others haunt swift clear streams in virgin rainforest, while yet others are confined to blackwater swamps. A few occur deep in the forest understorey, far from streams or pools, where they breed in the water accumulated in cavities in tree trunks. This book figures 98.7% of species known from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. For most, coloured drawings of the whole insect (omitting one pair of wings) are provided. Where necessary, coloured or monochrome drawings showing diagnostic features are also included. For some species, especially small Zygoptera (damselflies), only detailed structures are figured, as the general resemblance between close species is strong. A wide range of larval types is also figured.



Singapore Adventurers' Club : www.sac.org

Kindred Spirits, Nature's Friends:
The Annotated Budak : budak.blogs.com
Midnight Monkey Monitor : leafmonkey.blogspot.com
Colourful Clouds : colorclouds.blogspot.com
Lost in the Jungle : tuskerman.blogspot.com
The Tide Chaser : tidechaser.blogspot.com
Urban Forest : uforest.blogspot.com
Leshon Loves Nature : leshonlovesnature.blogspot.com
God's Wonderful Creation : wondercreation.blogspot.com
Where Discovery Begins : wherediscoverybegins.blogspot.com
Art in Wetlands : artinwetlands.wordpress.com
 

Rights and welfare of animals:
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) : www.spca.org.sg
Animal Concerns Research & Education Society (ACRES) : www.acres.org.sg
Cat Welfare Society : www.catwelfare.org
Action for Singapore Dogs : www.asdsingapore.com
Animal Lovers League : www.animalloversleague.com
Animal Watch : www.animalwatch.org
House Rabbit Society Singapore : www.hrss.net
 

Nature books, journals, gifts, binoculars, etc.
Nature's Niche : www.naturesniche.com
 

Natural products / lifestyle for a good cause:
Green Circle Eco-Farm : www.greencircle.com.sg
Kampung Senang Charity & Education Foundation : www.kg-senang.org.sg
Vegetarian Society (Singapore) : www.vegetarian-society.org

History and Sights of Singapore:
Singapore Photopoetry : singaporephotopoetry.blogspot.com
Singapore College of Traditional Chinese Medicine : www.singaporetcm.com

Nature & Environment in S.E. Asia:
Climate Change Organisation : www.cco-asia.org
Eyes On The Forest : www.eyesontheforest.or.id
Malaysian Nature Society : www.mns.org.my
Wildlife Asia : www.wildlifeasia.org
Wild Asia : www.wildasia.net
Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia : www.eepsea.org

Nature / Environment:
Wild Singapore : www.wildsingapore.com
TeamSeaGrass : teamseagrass.blogspot.com
Raffles Museum of Biodiversity and Research : habitatnews.nus.edu.sg
RBZ Book Reviews : rbz-bookreviews.blogspot.com
Blue Water Volunteers : www.bluewatervolunteers.org
Reef Ecology Study Team : coralreef.nus.edu.sg
Pulau Hantu Blog : www.pulauhantu.org
Wildlife Singapore : www.wildsingapore.per.sg
Wildfilms : wildfilms.blogspot.com
Naked Hermit Crabs : nakedhermitcrabs.blogspot.com
Ecology Asia : www.ecologyasia.com
Singapore Snakes : singaporesnakes.blogspot.com
Bird Ecology Study Group : besgroup.blogspot.com
Eco Singapore : www.eco-singapore.org
Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve : www.sbwr.org.sg
Nature Spies : naturespies.blogspot.com
Simply Green : www.simplygreen.com.sg
 


Odonata related sites in Britain and Ireland

Cheshire Dragonflies & Damselflies
Dragonflies of the Hampshire and Surrey Borders
Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust
Dragonflies and Damselflies in the UK - particularly in North Buckinghamshire
Bedfordshire Odonata
Dragonflies and Damselflies of Wimbledon and Putney Commons
Dragonfly Ireland project
Stover Country Park, Devon
Northamptonshire Dragonflies
Staffordshire Ecological Record - A Survey of the Dragonflies of Lichfield
Yorkshire branch of the British Dragonfly Society
Biography of Philip Powell Calvert (H.B. White)
Toxicity tests on Stylurus amnicola (Great Lakes Fisheries Commission)

 

INDEX OF DRAGONFLY

site stats