Last Updated on : Sunday, 21 May, 2017 02:31:41 PM

Index of Dragonflies Sabah   |  Exoskeleton  |   LINKS  | Simplified Chinese Version |
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蜻 蜓
Common dragonflies in Sabah, Malaysia

蜻蜓索引 / 自然風情
A Survey on dragonflies of Sabah (Dragonflies of North Borneo)
A state rich in Odonata in malaysia


The compound eyes of dragonflies

Dragonflies and damselflies have large compound eyes that can see in all directions. When the compound eye is magnified several hundred times, each individual facet (ommatidium) is shown to be hexagonal in shape.

More on comparing the size, colour, and shape of the eyes of dragonflies...

A B C D E
Eyes separated widely from other Eyes meet partially along a seam Eyes barely touch at a centre point Eyes meet along a long seam Eyes close but not quite touching
Family Gomphidae Some of Libellulidae
Swam
Some of Libellulidae

Dragonflies active under strong sunshine

Family Aeshnidae
Some of Libellulidae

Dragonflies active at night.

 





Eyes of a male Nannophya pygmaea
Eyes of a female Lyriothemis cleis
Eyes of a male Brachydiplax chalybea
Eyes of  a female Agrionoptera insignis


Eyes of a female Camacinia gigantea

 

Tholymis tillarga (Fabricius, 1798)

 

生態照片 : 蜻蜓之美

蜻蜓有強健的胸肌來帶動薄薄窄長的翅膀.蜻蜓能在空中高速飛行,時速可達100公里.

蜻蜓休息時翅膀仍外伸,不能折疊,所以停留的地方要有相當的空間的枝頭或葉頂。


珈蟌科 Calopterygidae
幽蟌科 Euphaeidae
鼓蟌科 Chlorocyphidae
絲蟌科 Lestidae
洵蟌科 Synlestidae
蹣蟌科 Megapodagrionidae
琵蟌科 Platycnemididae
樸蟌科 Protoneuridae
細蟌科 Coenagrionidae
 
勾蜓科 Cordulegastridae
春蜓科 Gomphidae
晏蜓科 Aeshnidae
弓蜓科 Corduliidae
蜻蜓科 Libellulidae

沙巴气候宜人,蓝天白云,常年温度28至33摄氏度之间。其地理环境得天独厚,有绵延的海岸线,极为特殊的珊瑚等海洋生物;有世界上第二大的原始热带雨林,诸多的红树林,还有世界罕见的珍禽昆虫,奇花异草,名贵药材……沙巴,不仅是旅游胜地,还是自然爱好者、植物学家、鸟禽观察家、潜水者、登山爱好者的天堂,更是喜爱亲近大自然人士的好去处.

Fast key to dragonfly species  http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu

私の昆虫アルバム-トンボ編  : http://www5e.biglobe.ne.jp



蜻蜓的交配也是在飛行中進行的。雄蜻蜓用腹部末端的把握器抓緊雌蜻蜓的頸部;雌蜻蜓腹部由下向前彎,把生殖孔接到雄蜻蜓腹部第二節下面的貯存精子器官,然後雄蜻蜓才進行授精。產卵時,大多是邊飛邊用尾部碰水面,把卵排出。我們常見的所謂「蜻蜓點水」,就是雌蜻蜓產卵的表演動作。蜻蜓還有「領域佔據」的習性,雄性的蜻蜓為了覓食及搶得與雌蜻蜓交尾配對的機會,常會發生爭奪地盤而互相追逐的場面。


蜻蜓交尾

蜻蜓交尾的方式非常獨特,雌雄會形成"輛狀",雄的在上用尾部緊緊拑著雌性的頭部或胸部,在下的雌性會彎曲腹部貼著雄性的第三節腹部,這時精子和卵子便會結合.交尾的時間由數分鐘至數小時不等.一般雄蜻蜓會伴著雌蜻蜓直至產卵才分開......


蜻蜓的頭與胸部連結的部分較窄,使頭部能夠上下左右轉動,且有一對大複眼,視覺非常敏銳,能夠在空中追擊或攔截一些動作慢的飛翔昆蟲,所以是空中的惡棍。

捕捉的昆蟲包括蜜蜂、蛾類,甚至較小的蜻蜓。

 
  Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842)

 


A Guide to the Dragonflies of Borneo: Their Identification and Biology By: Orr A G

The first guide to the dragonflies of Borneo Island. The most comprehensive coverage for any tropical region. 275 species (60%) occurring on the island are described and illustrated in photographs and 25 beautiful plates of 1/2-wing drawings. Chapters on biology, classification and ecology, as well as a complete checklist. 19.5 x 26.5 cm.

Many more yet to be discovered, Borneo has one of the richest and most exciting dragonfly faunas in the world. More than 40% species found nowhere else, making Borneo the most distinctive sub-region of Sundaland. It is home to such spectacular species as Tetracanthagyna plagiata, the heaviest of all dragonflies, many beautiful picture-winged chlorocyphids and euphaeids, and high-altitude endemics such as Matronoides cyaneipennis restricted to Mount Kinabalu and nearby mountains.

 
The first guide to Borneo’s dragonflies, is also the most comprehensively illustrated account of any large tropical dragonfly fauna yet published. Species are figured by natural photographs and half-wing drawings. About 60% of known species are shown, including almost all the distinctive and common species likely to be encountered by a casual visitor. Particular attention is given to the identification of the common but difficult medium-sized red dragonflies of which there are several.

The text augments the illustrations and provides useful information on biology. Introductory chapters discuss structure and general biology, ecology and conservation, faunistics and biogeography and collecting techniques and photography. There is a complete and up to date checklist. Illustrated keys to families of adults give the reader an understanding of the structures used in classifying dragonflies and augment the usefulness of the illustrations of entire insects. Main larval forms are shown. This book will be useful not just in Borneo, but also in neighboring parts of south-east Asia.
 


A Pocket Guide to Dragonflies of Peninsular MalaysiaA Pocket Guide to Dragonflies of Peninsular Malaysia AG Orr

127 pages, colour illus, map.
Natural History Publications
 

 

Dragonflies are among the most beautiful of insects. Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are home to more than 230 species (twice the number found in Europe). They include some of the most exquisite forms found anywhere in the World. They occur wherever there is suitable fresh water habitat. Many species frequent the borders of garden ponds in our largest cities, perching on lily pads with glowing red bodies in striking contrast to their green platform. Others haunt swift clear streams in virgin rainforest, while yet others are confined to blackwater swamps. A few occur deep in the forest understorey, far from streams or pools, where they breed in the water accumulated in cavities in tree trunks. This book figures 98.7% of species known from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. For most, coloured drawings of the whole insect (omitting one pair of wings) are provided. Where necessary, coloured or monochrome drawings showing diagnostic features are also included. For some species, especially small Zygoptera (damselflies), only detailed structures are figured, as the general resemblance between close species is strong. A wide range of larval types is also figured.


文献参考

Odonata related sites in Britain and Ireland

Dragonflies of the Hampshire and Surrey Borders
Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust
Bedfordshire Odonata
Dragonflies and Damselflies of Wimbledon and Putney Commons
Dragonfly Ireland project
Northamptonshire Dragonflies
Staffordshire Ecological Record - A Survey of the Dragonflies of Lichfield
Yorkshire branch of the British Dragonfly Society
Toxicity tests on Stylurus amnicola (Great Lakes Fisheries Commission)


References

Baker, R. L., and H. F. Clifford. 1982. Life cycle of an Enallagma boreale Selys population from the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 11(4):317-322.

Calvert, P. P. 1902, in Calvert, P. P. 1901-1908. Odonata. In Biologia Centrali Americana: Insecta Neuroptera. R. H. Porter & Dulau & Co.: London. Dec 1902, p. 114.

Calvert, P. P. 1919. Gundlach's work on the Odonata of Cuba: a critical study. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 45:335-396.

Cannings, R. A. 1989. Enallagma basidens Calvert, a dragonfly new to Canada, with notes on the expansion of its range in North America (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Notulae Odonatologicae 3(4):53-55.

Charpentier, T. de. 1840. Libellulinae europaeae descriptae e depictae. Lipsiae, Leopold Voss. 180 pp.

Donnelly, T. W. 1989. The status of Enallagma cyathigerum (Charp.) and E. vernale Gloyd in south-central New York (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 18:373-378.

Gloyd, L. K. 1943. Enallagma vernale, a new species of Odonata from Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 479:1-8.

Hagen, H. A. 1861. Synopsis of the neuroptera of North America, with a list of the South American species. Smithsonia Miscellaneous Collections 4:1-347.

Ingham, B. R., and C. E. Jenner. 1976. Life histories of Enallagma hageni (Walsh) and E. aspersum (Hagen) (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 5:331-345.

Johannsson, O. E. 1978. Co-existence of larval Zygoptera (Odonata) common to the Norfolk Broads (U.K.). Oecologia 32:303-321.

Kellicot, D. S. 1895. Catalogue of the Odonata of Ohio, Part 1. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 17:195-216.

Kormondy, E. J., and J. L. Gower. 1965. Life history variations in an association of Odonata. Ecology 46:882-886.

Macan, T. T. 1964. The Odonata of a moorland fishpond. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 49:325-360.

Morse, A. P. 1895. New North American Odonata. Psyche 7:207-211.

O'Brien, M. F., and P. D. Pratt. 1999 (In press). Enallagma anna, a damselfly new to the Great Lakes region (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 32(1).

Pearlstone, P. S. M. 1973. The food of damselfly larvae in Marion Lake, British Columbia. Syesis 6:33-39.

Say, T. 1839. Descriptions of new North American neuropterous insects and observations on some already described by (the late) Th. Say. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia 8:9-46.

Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1875. Notes on Odonata from Newfoundland collected in 1874 by Mr. John Milne. Entomologists Monthly Magazine 11:241-243.

Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1876. Synopsis des agrionines, cinquième légion: Arion (suite). Le genre Agrion. Bulletin de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Belgique (2) 42:480-531.

Walker, E. M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 1. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Ontario. xi + 292 pp.

Walsh, B. D. 1862. List of the Pseudoneuroptera of Illinois contained in the cabinet of the writer, with descriptions of over forty new species, and notes on their structural affinities. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 1862:361-402.

Walsh, B. D. 1863. Observations on certain N. A. neuroptera by Hagen, M. D., of Konigsberg, Prussia; translated from the original French MS., and published by permission of the author, with notes and descriptions of about twenty new N. A. species of Pseudoneuroptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2:167-272. [note: see also Walsh, B. D. 1862 for original description of adults, which were named in Walsh 1863. Source: Westfall and May 1996 ).

Westfall, M. J., Jr. and M. L. May. 1996. Damselflies of North America. Scientific Publishers: Gainesville, Florida. x + 650 pp.



 

INDEX OF DRAGONFLY

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