Last Updated on : Sunday, 21 May, 2017 02:31:41 PM

Index of Dragonflies Sabah   |  Exoskeleton  |   LINKS  | Simplified Chinese Version |
Traditional Chinese Version  |  English Version  |

蜻 蜓
Common dragonflies in Sabah, Malaysia

蜻蜓索引 / 自然風情
A Survey on dragonflies of Sabah (Dragonflies of North Borneo)
A state rich in Odonata in malaysia

The compound eyes of dragonflies

Dragonflies and damselflies have large compound eyes that can see in all directions. When the compound eye is magnified several hundred times, each individual facet (ommatidium) is shown to be hexagonal in shape.

More on comparing the size, colour, and shape of the eyes of dragonflies...

Eyes separated widely from other Eyes meet partially along a seam Eyes barely touch at a centre point Eyes meet along a long seam Eyes close but not quite touching
Family Gomphidae Some of Libellulidae
Some of Libellulidae

Dragonflies active under strong sunshine

Family Aeshnidae
Some of Libellulidae

Dragonflies active at night.


Eyes of a male Nannophya pygmaea
Eyes of a female Lyriothemis cleis
Eyes of a male Brachydiplax chalybea
Eyes of  a female Agrionoptera insignis

Eyes of a female Camacinia gigantea


Tholymis tillarga (Fabricius, 1798)


生態照片 : 蜻蜓之美



珈蟌科 Calopterygidae
幽蟌科 Euphaeidae
鼓蟌科 Chlorocyphidae
絲蟌科 Lestidae
洵蟌科 Synlestidae
蹣蟌科 Megapodagrionidae
琵蟌科 Platycnemididae
樸蟌科 Protoneuridae
細蟌科 Coenagrionidae
勾蜓科 Cordulegastridae
春蜓科 Gomphidae
晏蜓科 Aeshnidae
弓蜓科 Corduliidae
蜻蜓科 Libellulidae


Fast key to dragonfly species

私の昆虫アルバム-トンボ編  :






  Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842)


A Guide to the Dragonflies of Borneo: Their Identification and Biology By: Orr A G

The first guide to the dragonflies of Borneo Island. The most comprehensive coverage for any tropical region. 275 species (60%) occurring on the island are described and illustrated in photographs and 25 beautiful plates of 1/2-wing drawings. Chapters on biology, classification and ecology, as well as a complete checklist. 19.5 x 26.5 cm.

Many more yet to be discovered, Borneo has one of the richest and most exciting dragonfly faunas in the world. More than 40% species found nowhere else, making Borneo the most distinctive sub-region of Sundaland. It is home to such spectacular species as Tetracanthagyna plagiata, the heaviest of all dragonflies, many beautiful picture-winged chlorocyphids and euphaeids, and high-altitude endemics such as Matronoides cyaneipennis restricted to Mount Kinabalu and nearby mountains.

The first guide to Borneo’s dragonflies, is also the most comprehensively illustrated account of any large tropical dragonfly fauna yet published. Species are figured by natural photographs and half-wing drawings. About 60% of known species are shown, including almost all the distinctive and common species likely to be encountered by a casual visitor. Particular attention is given to the identification of the common but difficult medium-sized red dragonflies of which there are several.

The text augments the illustrations and provides useful information on biology. Introductory chapters discuss structure and general biology, ecology and conservation, faunistics and biogeography and collecting techniques and photography. There is a complete and up to date checklist. Illustrated keys to families of adults give the reader an understanding of the structures used in classifying dragonflies and augment the usefulness of the illustrations of entire insects. Main larval forms are shown. This book will be useful not just in Borneo, but also in neighboring parts of south-east Asia.

A Pocket Guide to Dragonflies of Peninsular MalaysiaA Pocket Guide to Dragonflies of Peninsular Malaysia AG Orr

127 pages, colour illus, map.
Natural History Publications


Dragonflies are among the most beautiful of insects. Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are home to more than 230 species (twice the number found in Europe). They include some of the most exquisite forms found anywhere in the World. They occur wherever there is suitable fresh water habitat. Many species frequent the borders of garden ponds in our largest cities, perching on lily pads with glowing red bodies in striking contrast to their green platform. Others haunt swift clear streams in virgin rainforest, while yet others are confined to blackwater swamps. A few occur deep in the forest understorey, far from streams or pools, where they breed in the water accumulated in cavities in tree trunks. This book figures 98.7% of species known from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. For most, coloured drawings of the whole insect (omitting one pair of wings) are provided. Where necessary, coloured or monochrome drawings showing diagnostic features are also included. For some species, especially small Zygoptera (damselflies), only detailed structures are figured, as the general resemblance between close species is strong. A wide range of larval types is also figured.


Odonata related sites in Britain and Ireland

Dragonflies of the Hampshire and Surrey Borders
Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust
Bedfordshire Odonata
Dragonflies and Damselflies of Wimbledon and Putney Commons
Dragonfly Ireland project
Northamptonshire Dragonflies
Staffordshire Ecological Record - A Survey of the Dragonflies of Lichfield
Yorkshire branch of the British Dragonfly Society
Toxicity tests on Stylurus amnicola (Great Lakes Fisheries Commission)


Baker, R. L., and H. F. Clifford. 1982. Life cycle of an Enallagma boreale Selys population from the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 11(4):317-322.

Calvert, P. P. 1902, in Calvert, P. P. 1901-1908. Odonata. In Biologia Centrali Americana: Insecta Neuroptera. R. H. Porter & Dulau & Co.: London. Dec 1902, p. 114.

Calvert, P. P. 1919. Gundlach's work on the Odonata of Cuba: a critical study. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 45:335-396.

Cannings, R. A. 1989. Enallagma basidens Calvert, a dragonfly new to Canada, with notes on the expansion of its range in North America (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Notulae Odonatologicae 3(4):53-55.

Charpentier, T. de. 1840. Libellulinae europaeae descriptae e depictae. Lipsiae, Leopold Voss. 180 pp.

Donnelly, T. W. 1989. The status of Enallagma cyathigerum (Charp.) and E. vernale Gloyd in south-central New York (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 18:373-378.

Gloyd, L. K. 1943. Enallagma vernale, a new species of Odonata from Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 479:1-8.

Hagen, H. A. 1861. Synopsis of the neuroptera of North America, with a list of the South American species. Smithsonia Miscellaneous Collections 4:1-347.

Ingham, B. R., and C. E. Jenner. 1976. Life histories of Enallagma hageni (Walsh) and E. aspersum (Hagen) (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 5:331-345.

Johannsson, O. E. 1978. Co-existence of larval Zygoptera (Odonata) common to the Norfolk Broads (U.K.). Oecologia 32:303-321.

Kellicot, D. S. 1895. Catalogue of the Odonata of Ohio, Part 1. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 17:195-216.

Kormondy, E. J., and J. L. Gower. 1965. Life history variations in an association of Odonata. Ecology 46:882-886.

Macan, T. T. 1964. The Odonata of a moorland fishpond. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 49:325-360.

Morse, A. P. 1895. New North American Odonata. Psyche 7:207-211.

O'Brien, M. F., and P. D. Pratt. 1999 (In press). Enallagma anna, a damselfly new to the Great Lakes region (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 32(1).

Pearlstone, P. S. M. 1973. The food of damselfly larvae in Marion Lake, British Columbia. Syesis 6:33-39.

Say, T. 1839. Descriptions of new North American neuropterous insects and observations on some already described by (the late) Th. Say. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia 8:9-46.

Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1875. Notes on Odonata from Newfoundland collected in 1874 by Mr. John Milne. Entomologists Monthly Magazine 11:241-243.

Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1876. Synopsis des agrionines, cinquième légion: Arion (suite). Le genre Agrion. Bulletin de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Belgique (2) 42:480-531.

Walker, E. M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 1. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Ontario. xi + 292 pp.

Walsh, B. D. 1862. List of the Pseudoneuroptera of Illinois contained in the cabinet of the writer, with descriptions of over forty new species, and notes on their structural affinities. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 1862:361-402.

Walsh, B. D. 1863. Observations on certain N. A. neuroptera by Hagen, M. D., of Konigsberg, Prussia; translated from the original French MS., and published by permission of the author, with notes and descriptions of about twenty new N. A. species of Pseudoneuroptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2:167-272. [note: see also Walsh, B. D. 1862 for original description of adults, which were named in Walsh 1863. Source: Westfall and May 1996 ).

Westfall, M. J., Jr. and M. L. May. 1996. Damselflies of North America. Scientific Publishers: Gainesville, Florida. x + 650 pp.



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