Last Updated on Monday, 23 July, 2018 03:30:29 PM


Family: Salticidae
Subfamily: Myrmarachninae
Genus: Myrmarachne

♂♀

Jumping Spider, Salticidae, is a very large family contains the most colourful species of spiders.

This Genus Myrmarachne mimic ants. Besides the colours and body shape, those spiders' behaviour likes an ant too. They continuously waving their front legs as ants waving their antenna. However, when disturbed, the spiders ran very fast and jumped as a typical Jumping Spider. We also noticed that those jumping spiders did not interact with its ant model, i.e., did not prey on foraging ants. They may simply gain protection by mimicking the locally abundant ant species. Click here on details about Ant-mimicking Jumping Spiders.


 

Female

Myrmarachne formicaria

21-6-2009 Stadium




Myrmarachne malayana

 Myrmarachne magna

Female
5-3-2009 Semarak

Myrmarachne magna

 Spidering of
Myrmarachne magna
大蟻蛛

19-7-2009 GUDANG 4

Myrmarachne MEMBALUA
Myrmarachne
MEMBALUA
Myrmarachne sp VOCATIONAL
Myrmarachne sp VOCATIONAL
Female ♀4mm+-
2016-02-06 VOCATIONAL COLLEGE TAWAU


http://salticidae.org/salticidImages

Sarawak: Mulu Nat. Pk., beach on Melinau River

 


 

Myrmarachne assimilis sp SHORT ABDOMEN


Male ♂ 9.5mm
2015-09-07 BOMBALAI

 

Myrmarachne assimilisMyrmarachne assimilis

Myrmarachne assimilis sp LONG ABDOMEN

Male 30-7-2015 ESPLANDE
Female 7.5mm 30-7-2015 ESP


 

Myrmarachne plataleoides

South East Asia

 

 

 Myrmarachne ABAKA

6mm Female
11-10-2009 ABAKA

 

Myrmarachne sp SEMARAK

Myrmarachne sp SEMARAK

1-10-2008 SEMARAK
Female

23-7-2015 SEMARAK MALE 2.25 mm

 

 

Myrmarachne sp TAWAU

ASIA

 


Myrmarachne sp BENUK

 

Kg Benuk, Sarawak
Female
28-7-2014 BENUK
 

Myrmarachne sp BENUK
Myrmarachne sp BENUK

27-11-2014 MEROTAI


Myrmarachne sp ASIA

 

Asia Superstore
TB12861, BA, Blok Kedai,
Jln Kuhara Batu 5,
Taman Semarak,
91000 Tawau,
Sabah

Myrmarachne plataleoides

Myrmarachne TAWAU


Myrmarachne plataleoides

4.5mm Male
11-10-2009 ABAKA

 

 


Myrmarachne GEMOK

Female 2014



 

Myrmarachne KINABALU

30-8-2011 KNP
6mm Male

Myrmarachne Gomantong

11-9-2010 Gomaong
Female

 

 

 


 

Myrmarachne sp BATU LINTANG

Female

25-7-2014 BATU LINTANG

 

Myrmarachne plataleoides

South East Asia

 



 

Myrmarachne japonica

 

Myrmarachne sp MEROTAI2009

25-6-2009 Merotai
3MM Female

 

Myrmarachne sp MEROTAI2014

Female

2014 MEROTAI

Myrmarachne plataleoides

Proszynski, 2001
Borneo
 

黑色蟻蛛 Myrmarachne inermichelis

黑色蟻蛛 Myrmarachne inermichelis
Female
13-1-2009 Semarak

黑色蟻蛛 Myrmarachne inermichelis

黑色蟻蛛 Myrmarachne inermichelis
Male
21-9-2008 Semarak

 

Myrmarachne cornuta



Myrmarachne cornuta
TYPE long waist

long-abdomen
Long-waist

Male

6-1-2013 WHITE BRIDGE

黑色蟻蛛 Myrmarachne inermichelis


Myrmarachne cornuta TYPE short waist

 

Myrmarachne inermichelis

short-waist


Male
24-1-2009 Semarak


Myrmarachne cornuta Type #3
Short waist
Round Abdomen
Male
 

Myrmarachne MADAI

Myrmarachne MADAI

Female
9-6-2010 MADAI


Myrmarachne assimilis is the only Myrmarachne species that resembles the aggressive weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina, with which it lives in close contact. Cosmophasis bitaeniata uses chemical mimicry to be accepted by the same ant species. It is suggested that M. assimilis uses a similar technique. Thus, its ant mimicry is twofold: in visual appearance to trick predators, but also evading to be hunted by the ants themselves.[3]

Several spiders (eg., most Myrmarachne) undergo transformational mimicry: because the spiderlings are too small to mimic the ant species the adult copies, they use other ant species as a model.


The overall body of spider myrmecomorphs is much narrower than non-mimics, which reduces the number of eggs per eggsac, compared to non-mimetic spiders of similar size. They seem to compensate by laying more eggsacs in their lifetime.

Ant-mimics usually use their first or second pair of legs to fake ant antennae, such reducing the number of functional legs to six.


Sometimes, the sexes each mimic a different model. There are also spiders where several morphs occur, each mimicking a different morph of the model ant species, or different ant species. For example, light yellow to brown morphs of Synemosyna aurantiaca mimic Pseudomyrmex flavidulus and P. oculatus, while black morphs mimic P. gracilis and P. sericeus.


In Micrathena, only males and juveniles resemble ants. This may be mimesis rather than mimicry.


It should be noted that even within a closely related group of taxa ant mimicry might have originated several times independently. This is demonstrated in the Salticidae subfamily Ballinae


80% of spiders with Batesian mimicry mimic ants, comprising more than 100 species. Ant-mimicking spiders can be found in the following spider families:


Araneidae (e.g. Micrathena)
Corinnidae (e.g. Apochinoma, Castianeira, Myrmecium, Corinna vertebrata, Mazax pax, M. spinosa, Myrmecotypus, Sphecotypus, Otacilia, Phrurolithus)
Dysderidae (Harpactea hombergi preys on ants, behavioral mimic, not morphological)
Eresidae (Seothyra schreineri males mimic small Camponotus castes)
Gnaphosidae (e.g. Micaria, Callilepis nocturna)
Prodidomidae (Myandra)
Linyphiidae (Linyphia furtiva, Meioneta beata)
Oonopidae (Diblemma donisthorpei mimics Wasmannia auropunctata)
Salticidae (e.g. Agorius, Augustaea, Belippo, Bocus, Chalcolecta, Consingis, Corcovetella, Cosmophasis, Enoplomischus, Judalana, Leptorchestes, Martella, Marengo, Myrmarachne, Paradamoetas cara, Peckhamia picata, Philates, Sadies, Sarinda, Synageles, Synagelides, Synemosyna, Tutelina, Uluella, Zuniga)
Theridiidae (e.g. Anatea formicaria, Cerocida strigosa, Coleosoma floridanum (only males), Coleosoma acutiventer, Helvibis brasiliana, H. chilensis, Heleosoma floridanum, Melychiopharis cynips, Cerocida strigosa)
Thomisidae (e.g. Amyciaea, Aphantochilus, Bucranium, Strophius nigricans)
Zodariidae (e.g. Storena, Zodarion)


Some spiders (e.g. Zodariidae or some Myrmarachne) use their ant disguise to hunt ants, although most use their disguise to escape predators. In salticids, the latter can be discerned from the ants from the movements they make in order to keep the ants at an acceptable distance. Ant hunters often do not resemble ants as much.


Ant mimicry is mimicry of ants by other organisms. Ants are abundant all over the world, and insect predators that rely on vision to identify their prey such as birds and wasps normally avoid them, either because they are unpalatable, or aggressive. Thus some other arthropods mimic ants to escape predation (protective mimicry). Conversely, some species (e.g. Zodariidae spiders) use their anatomical and behavioral ant mimicry to hunt ants (aggressive mimicry). Other cases are also known.[1] The term myrmecomorphy is also used to describe ant mimicry.

Ants are the most abundant group of insects and have powerful defense mechanisms such as acid taste, aggressive biting, painful sting, and group defense.

Ants are generally not subject to predation. They are the ideal models in mimicry rings. Many insects and spiders have different ways to resemble ants. This is known as Myrmecomorphy.

Myrmecomorphy highlights an important aspect of mimicry - the behavior. Predators use different aspects of prey appearance when making a decision to attack. Behavior is an important part of multi-modal signals. Constant waving of antennae is a common feature of ants. Ants are also characterized by their jerky and zigzag movements. Those ants behavior are commonly seen in the ant mimics.

Followings are  Ants Mimicry Spiders. ALL of them are NOT ants but spiders.


The more common Mymarachne species have a long waist (pedicel) and an elongated cephalothorax with a constriction dividing the higher cephalic region and the lower thoraxix part. The jaws of Myrmarachne spider, especially the males, are enormously enlarged and project in front making the spider appear to be a soldier ant.

These Jumping Spiders assume the appearance of an ant by having long and slender legs. These spiders'  fore-legs are often raised in the air like a pair of antennae of the ant.


By mimicking ants, the spiders deceive their ant-models and prey either on the ants themselves, or on the homopteran bugs "tended" by the ants.

And by copying the physical appearance of ants, the ant-mimicking Jumping Spiders are for self-protection, since spider-hunting wasps, birds and other spider-predators generally avoid ants which secrete the distasteful formic acid when attacked.

All images of  Ant mimicry spiders in this page are taken in Sabah, Malaysia.

 


Ant mimicry spiderAnt mimicry spiderAnt mimicry spider

Genus : Myrmarachne Antmimicking spiders


Ant mimicry spiderAnt mimicry spider



(蠅虎科Family : Salticidae)
 (蟻蛛屬)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_mimicry

Genus : Myrmarachne
Antmimicking spiders

Myrmarachne is a genus of jumping spiders which imitate an ant by waving their front legs in the air to simulate antennae. Some species also look strikingly like ants.
Spiders in this genus are commonly called antmimicking spiders, although there are many other spiders that mimic ants.


80% of spiders with Batesian mimicry mimic ants, comprising more than 100 species. Ant-mimicking spiders can be found in the following spider families:
  Ant-mimicking Spider Family : Ant-mimicking Spider Species :
1 Araneidae  (e.g. Micrathena)
2 Corinnidae  (e.g. Apochinoma, Castianeira, Myrmecium, Corinna vertebrata, Mazax pax, M. spinosa, Myrmecotypus, Sphecotypus, Otacilia, Phrurolithus)
3 Dysderidae (Harpactea hombergi preys on ants, behavioral mimic, not morphological)
4 Eresidae  (Seothyra schreineri males mimic small Camponotus castes)
5 Gnaphosidae  (e.g. Micaria, Callilepis nocturna)
6 Prodidomidae  (Myandra)
7 Linyphiidae  (Linyphia furtiva, Meioneta beata)
8 Oonopidae  (Diblemma donisthorpei mimics Wasmannia auropunctata)
9 Salticidae  (e.g. Agorius, Augustaea, Belippo, Bocus, Chalcolecta, Consingis, Corcovetella, Cosmophasis, Enoplomischus, Judalana, Leptorchestes, Martella, Marengo, Myrmarachne, Paradamoetas cara, Peckhamia picata, Philates, Sadies, Sarinda, Synageles, Synagelides, Synemosyna, Tutelina, Uluella, Zuniga)
10 Theridiidae  (e.g. Anatea formicaria, Cerocida strigosa, Coleosoma floridanum (only males), Coleosoma acutiventer, Helvibis brasiliana, H. chilensis, Heleosoma floridanum, Melychiopharis cynips, Cerocida strigosa)
11 Thomisidae  (e.g. Amyciaea, Aphantochilus, Bucranium, Strophius nigricans)
12 Zodariidae  (e.g. Storena, Zodarion)
 

The more common Mymarachne species have a long waist (pedicel) and an elongated cephalothorax with a constriction dividing the higher cephalic region and the lower thoraxix part. The jaws of Myrmarachne spider, especially the males, are enormously enlarged and project in front making the spider appear to be a soldier ant.

These Jumping Spiders assume the appearance of an ant by having long and slender legs. These spiders'  fore-legs are often raised in the air like a pair of antennae of the ant.


By mimicking ants, the spiders deceive their ant-models and prey either on the ants themselves, or on the homopteran bugs "tended" by the ants.

And by copying the physical appearance of ants, the ant-mimicking Jumping Spiders are for self-protection, since spider-hunting wasps, birds and other spider-predators generally avoid ants which secrete the distasteful formic acid when attacked.

All images of  Ant mimicry spiders in this page are taken in Sabah, Malaysia.


Ant mimicry spiderAnt mimicry spiderAnt mimicry spider


Ants are the most abundant group of insects and have powerful defense mechanisms such as acid taste, aggressive biting, painful sting, and group defense.

Ants are generally not subject to predation. They are the ideal models in mimicry rings. Many insects and spiders have different ways to resemble ants. This is known as Myrmecomorphy.

Myrmecomorphy highlights an important aspect of mimicry - the behavior. Predators use different aspects of prey appearance when making a decision to attack. Behavior is an important part of multi-modal signals. Constant waving of antennae is a common feature of ants. Ants are also characterized by their jerky and zigzag movements. Those ants behavior are commonly seen in the ant mimics.

Followings are  Ants Mimicry Spiders. ALL of them are NOT ants but spiders.

Ant mimicry spider of MalaysiaAnt mimicry spiders

 


Ant mimicry is mimicry of ants by other organisms. Ants are abundant all over the world, and insect predators that rely on vision to identify their prey such as birds and wasps normally avoid them, either because they are unpalatable, or aggressive. Thus some other arthropods mimic ants to escape predation (protective mimicry). Conversely, some species (e.g. Zodariidae spiders) use their anatomical and behavioral ant mimicry to hunt ants (aggressive mimicry). Other cases are also known.[1] The term myrmecomorphy is also used to describe ant mimicry.

Some spiders (e.g. Zodariidae or some Myrmarachne) use their ant disguise to hunt ants, although most use their disguise to escape predators. In salticids, the latter can be discerned from the ants from the movements they make in order to keep the ants at an acceptable distance. Ant hunters often do not resemble ants as much.

Myrmarachne assimilis is the only Myrmarachne species that resembles the aggressive weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina, with which it lives in close contact. Cosmophasis bitaeniata uses chemical mimicry to be accepted by the same ant species. It is suggested that M. assimilis uses a similar technique. Thus, its ant mimicry is twofold: in visual appearance to trick predators, but also evading to be hunted by the ants themselves.[3]

Several spiders (eg., most Myrmarachne) undergo transformational mimicry: because the spiderlings are too small to mimic the ant species the adult copies, they use other ant species as a model.


The overall body of spider myrmecomorphs is much narrower than non-mimics, which reduces the number of eggs per eggsac, compared to non-mimetic spiders of similar size. They seem to compensate by laying more eggsacs in their lifetime.

Ant-mimics usually use their first or second pair of legs to fake ant antennae, such reducing the number of functional legs to six.


Sometimes, the sexes each mimic a different model. There are also spiders where several morphs occur, each mimicking a different morph of the model ant species, or different ant species. For example, light yellow to brown morphs of Synemosyna aurantiaca mimic Pseudomyrmex flavidulus and P. oculatus, while black morphs mimic P. gracilis and P. sericeus.


In Micrathena, only males and juveniles resemble ants. This may be mimesis rather than mimicry.


It should be noted that even within a closely related group of taxa ant mimicry might have originated several times independently. This is demonstrated in the Salticidae subfamily Ballinae

 

Ant mimicry spiders

The Family of Salticidae has 18 Subfamilies
Salticidae Myrmarachninae
蟻蛛屬
Ant mimicry spiders

Myrmarachninae has 8 Genus :
1) Bocus Peckham & Peckham, 1892 — Borneo, Philippines (3 species)
2) Damoetas Peckham & Peckham, 1886 — Borneo, Australia (3 species)
3) Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 — worldwide (205 species)
4) Panachraesta Simon, 1900 — Sri Lanka (1 species)
5) Rhombonotus L. Koch, 1879 — Australia (1 species)
6) Ligonipes Karsch, 1878 — Australia, New Guinea (6 species)
7) Arachnotermes Mello-Leitγo, 1928 — Brazil (1 species)
8) Belippo Simon, 1910 — Africa (7 species)

Ant mimicry spiders

Thianitara spectrum (White Armband Jumper)Myrmarachne cornutaMyrmarachne MADAIMyrmarachne plataleoidesMyrmarachne GomantongMyrmarachninae


Genus: Damoetas
 

 


 


Damoetas nitidus (L. Koch, 1880) Shining Damoetas
 

 

SPIDERS OF BORNEO

website statistics