Last Updated On : Tuesday, February 16, 2016 09:45:12 AM


SPIDER FACTS AND INFORMATION
Spider Facts and Information.
1- Feeding,
2- Habitat,
3- Distribution,
4- Reproduction,
5- Anatomy



Cribellate spiders
(presence of a Cribellum)

1- Family Uloboridae
2- Family Psechridae
 

Ecribellate  spiders
(absence of a cribellum)

Miagrammopes sp BORNEO
Family Uloboridae
Miagrammopes sp BORNEO

14-7-2015 TBL

Mesida sp PRAWN FARM
Family Tetragnathidae
Mesida sp PRAWN FARM

14-11-2014 PRAWN FARM

Psechrus borneo Male
Family Psechridae
Psechrus borneo Male

17-4-2015 Kanowit

Nephila pilipe Female
Family Nephilidae
Nephila pilipe Female

19-7-2009 BUKIT GEMOK

 

Crossopriza lyoni
Family Pholcidae
Crossopriza lyoni

27-11-2014 CONTAINER


Wolf spiders are colored in drab black, brown and gray to blend into their environment. These camouflage colors enable the spiders to surprise their prey while hunting and to hide from predators like hunting wasps.

A spider can hide by using its colors and patterns for camouflage to blend in with colors and patterns. Spiders have the colors of dirt, trees, leaves and grass.

Photo left : A female Pardosa laura Wolf Spider 4.5mm


POND WOLF SPIDER
See a pond wolf spider at the water edge ?

Photo 4 left : A Pond Wolf Spider
Pardosa pseudoannulata female 5.5mm is right in the middle of the photo.

Click to view the full image.

GROUND WOLF SPIDER

Photo 5 Left : A male Pardosa laura Wolf Spider 5.5mm looking at you (with its 8 eyes) and watching your every move.

Human naked eyes are difficult to spot such small wolf spiders with color and pattern of earth.

Click on the small image to view the full image.


The following are close up view of the two actual spiders in above Photo 4 and 5. Both are same family of wolf spider of different species with different living environment. They developed their colors and patterns for camouflage to blend in with colors and patterns of their environment. The Ground Wolf Spider (Photo 5) living on brown earth ground has darker brown color while the Pond Wolf Spider (Photo 4) living beside water developed translucent body.
POND WOLF SPIDER GROUND WOLF SPIDER

spider of photo 4
POND WOLF SPIDER

Female

spider of photo 5
GROUND WOLF SPIDER

Male

Color is lighter to match with water environment. Color is darker to match with dark soil ground.

 

 


Spiders are everywhere

Spiders can live almost anywhere in the world, some like it where it is very humid, and some like it where it is very dry. Some spiders live underground and catch their prey by jumping out at them. Others live in trees and capture their prey in their webs. Others live in our houses. You seen them hanging from the ceiling. Many times a spider's common name tells something about the spider. Garden spider lives in our gardens. Water spider lives near water. A wolf spider run around on the ground.
Some spiders live underground and catch their prey by jumping out at them
Some live in trees and capture their prey in their webs.
Others live in our houses. Hanging from the ceiling or just jumping around on our study desk.



22-6-2014 12:07 BOMBALAI
26-7-2015 18:01 SPORT

 



Spiders have natural enemies too !
All animals have natural enemies. Birds, insects such as wasps, snakes, lizards, frogs and fish eat spiders. Sometimes spiders eat each other.
Humans try to destroy spiders because we do not understand how useful they are.
Victim to its own kind Victim to its own kind

An Oxyopes macilentus spider (the orange spider in front) become victim to a hairy Menemerus jumping spider (the big gray spider behind)

Though both spider each have 8 eyes. Oxyopes spiders have poorer eye sight when compare to Menemerus spiders who have the largest eyes in proposion.

Victim to wasps Victim to wasps

Photo left : An moldy and empty dead body case of an unidentitified spider spices found in Bukit Gemok, Malaysia.  Note the absent of the spider abdomen believed to be consumed by larva of certain wasp species that  lays its egg on the spider's back.

Some big spiders easily fall prey to a species of wasp that lays its egg on spiders. When the larva hatches, it feeds off the living spider and as a penultimate gesture, causes the spider to spin a final web that has no prey-catching ability but is strongly secured, after which the larva dishes out the coup de grace (by literally sucking the life out of the spider) and pupates in the safety of the web.



Spiders help mankind to control insect population
Spiders are considered humankind's friend because they help keep the insect population in check.

Foods of spiders
Spiders eat various other arthropods, sometimes bigger size than themselves. Common prey include flies, bees, grasshoppers, moths and butterflies.

 

Spiders help mankind to control insect population  



1- Spiders are arachnids, not insects. Other members of the spider arachnid family include scorpions, mites, ticks and harvestmen.
 

Arachnid and Insects

Arachnid Insects

2- Spiders have 8 legs while insects have 6.
Spider
(Arachnid)

8 Legs
A spider (an arachnid) has 8 legs

Dragonfly
(Insect)

6 Legs
A dragonfly (an insect) has 6 legs

3- Spiders don’t have a pair of antennae while insects do.
a pair of antennae 觸角
Arachnid

Spiders
 

Insect

Mosquito
Fly
Ant
Dragonfly


4- There are around 40,000 different species of spider.
 


5- An abnormal fear of spiders is called ‘arachnophobia’.
 

Fear of Spiders
Arachniphobia is a kind of fear for spiders. If you are afraid of spiders, you have Arachniphobia.
 



6- Tarantulas are large and often hairy spiders, the biggest species have been known to kill mice, lizards and birds.
But the Tarantulas of Borneo is a small species that hunt only insects such as cockroach.


7- Giant Huntsman spiders have leg-spans of around 30cm (12 in). The largest species Huntsman in Borneo reach 15cm


1- Spiders are arachnids, not insects.

2- Other members of the arachnid family include scorpions, mites, ticks and harvestmen.

3- Spiders have 8 legs while insects have 6.

4- Spiders don’t have antennae while insects do.

5- Spiders are found on every continent of the world except Antarctica.

6- There are around 40000 different species of spider.

7- Most spiders make silk which they use to create spider webs and capture prey.

8- Abandoned spider webs are called cobwebs.

9- Most spiders are harmless to humans but a few spider species, such as the black widow, can bite humans and inject venom. Deaths from spider bites are rare however.

10- An abnormal fear of spiders is called ‘arachnophobia’.

11- Tarantulas are large and often hairy spiders, the biggest species have been known to kill mice, lizards and birds.

12- Most tarantula species pose no threat to humans.

13-The largest specie of tarantula is the Goliath Birdeater.

14- Giant Huntsman spiders have leg-spans of around 30cm (12 in).

 The Spider Body

A spider's body is divided into two sections, the abdomen and the cephalothorax. The legs, eyes, and mouthparts are all in the cephalothorax. Most spiders have poison glands and fangs in their jaws, which they use to inject poison into insects. The venom paralyzes or kills the prey.

Spiders are not insects as many people wrongly classified.

Spiders belong to a class of animals called arachnids. Most spiders have eight eyes, and they do not have antennae or wings.

 

1
Cephalothorax
The legs, eyes, and mouthparts are all in the cephalothorax.

1) Cephalothorax (prosoma)
1- legs
2- eyes
3- mouthparts

 

2
Abdomen
Silk glands called spinnerets located beneath abdomen.
 

2) Abdomen (opisthosoma)
1- spinnerets (silk glands)
2- book lungs
3- reproductive system
 


 

Recent 40 New records of spiders in State of Sabah

1 ARANEIDAE
1
Argiope versicolor
Argiope versicolor (Doleschall 1859)
Poring Horspring, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area.
Distribution: South East Asia Notes: These spiders are found in garden and forest.
2
Cyclosa bifida (Doleschall, 1859)
Distribution: South East Asia, New Guinea, India, Australia
This common spider can be found during the day and night time in gardens, mangrove forests, dipterocarp forests and montane forests of cooler areas at higher elevation. The web is decorated with debris from prey remains, twigs and shredded plants.
3
Cyclosa insulana (Costa, 1834) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 06.10.2011, resting at center of web, Sungai Tawau; 1F, night, JH, 27.11.2010, resting at center of web, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area. Distribution: South East Asia, India, New Guinea, China, Japan, Australia Notes: This species is reported to act as predators on dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes albopictus  . This spider builds orb-webs with the present of stabilimenta from debris.
4
Laglaise's Garden Spider (Eriovixia laglaisei)
4. Eriovixia laglaizei (Simon, 1877) Material examined: 3F, day, CXW, 19.07.2011, resting under leaves, Tawau Gemok Hill Distribution: South East Asia, New Guinea, India, China Notes: This common spider can be found hiding under leaves appear to be like a bird droppings in gardens. They are capable of capturing Homoptera (i.e. Leaf hoppers) which are larger than their own size.
5
Gasteracantha diardi (Lucas, 1835)
Location : Bombalai Hill
Distribution: South East Asia, China Notes: This spider constructs orb-web in mangrove forests, heath forests and at higher elevation and cooler area.
6
Gea spinipes Koch, 1843
Distribution: South East Asia, China

Resting on branch, Rainforest Discovery Centre. Notes: This spider constructs orb-web in-between long grasses close to the ground. They will free-fall onto the ground if disturbed. It occurs in gardens, dipterocarp forests and at higher elevations and cooler areas.
7
Macracantha arcuata (Fabricius, 1793)

Distribution: South East Asia, New Guinea, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India Notes: This species build orb-web high at a height of two meter from the ground, and is usually found in dipterocarp forests and gardens.
2 LYCOSIDAE
8
Hippasa holmerae Thorell, 1895

Build web on ground, Sungai Tawau.

Distribution: South East Asia, China, India

Notes: Lives in a huge colony that builds many sheet-webs on grasses in agriculture areas.

9
Pardosa birmanica Simon, 1884

Distribution: South East Asia, China. Notes: This common spider is found on sandy areas in garden and forests. The female carries around a large egg sac at the bottom end of the abdomen.

3 NEPHILIDAE
10
Golden Web Spider (Nephila pilipes)
Nephila pilipes (Fabricius 1793)

Distribution: South East Asia Notes: This large spider can be found at various locations in village, garden and forest. This spider was found close to the rivers.

4 OXYOPIDAE
11
Oxyopes lineatipes (Koch, 1848)

Distribution: SEA, China, India Notes: Common species found in agriculture areas, gardens and human settlements. The female spider sits on top and guards eggs cloaked in a fine silk.

5 PHOLCIDAE
12
Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867)

Distribution: South East Asia, China, India, Japan, Australia, Africa, America. Notes: Common species found inside building, human settlements and rural areas.

6 PISAURIDAE
13
Nilus albocinctus
Nilus albocinctus (Doleschall, 1859)

Distribution: South East Asia, Notes: Lives close to water bodies such as ponds, streams and waterfalls.

7 SALTICIDAE
14
14. Burmattus pococki (Thorell, 1895) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 09.06.2011, on leaves, Rainforest Discovery Centre. Distribution: South East Asia, China, Japan Notes: This spiders hunt at shrubs in the forest.
15 15. Carrhotus viduus (Koch, 1846) Material examined: 2F, day, CXW, 18.07.2011, on leaves, Tawau Gemok Hill. Distribution: South East Asia, China, Japan. Notes: This spider is found in gardens.
16x 16. Chrysilla lauta Thorell, 1887 Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 15.08.2011, on leaves, Semarak Garden. Distribution: South East Asia Notes: This spider is normally found in garden.
17
17. Cosmophasis thalassina (Koch, 1846) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 14.08.2011, walking on house ceiling, Semarak Garden. Distribution: South East Asia Notes: This spider is normally found in garden and human settlements.
18
Epeus flavobilineatus
18. Epeus flavobilineatus (Doleschall, 1859) Material examined: 1M, 1F, day, CXW, 15.08.2011, on leaves, Semarak Garden. Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore. Notes: This spider also preys on other spiders from the genus Chrysso. Normally found in mangroves, gardens  and dipterocarp forests.
19
19. Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 18.07.2011, walking on wall, Tawau Gemok Hill. Distribution: South East Asia Notes: This common spider is found inside building and human settlements.
20
Menemerus fulvus
20. Menemerus fulvus (Koch, 1877) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 05.10.2011, walking on house ceiling, Sungai Tawau. Distribution: South East Asia, Japan. Notes: This common spider is found inside building and human settlements.
21
Myrmarachne cornuta
21. Myrmarachne cornuta Badcock, 1918 Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 01.11.2011, walking on leaves, Tawau Hills Park. Distribution: Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore. Notes: This spider can be found in gardens and shrubs near forest fringe.
22
Phintella debilis
22. Phintella debilis (Thorell, 1891) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 02.11.2011, on leaves, Tawau Hills Park. Distribution: South East Asia, India Notes: This spider can be found in garden and agriculture area.
23
Phintella versicolor
23. Phintella versicolor (Koch, 1846) Material examined: 1M, 1F, day, CXW, 14.08.2011, walking on house ceiling, Semarak Garden. Distribution: South East Asia, China, Japan, Korea. Notes: This spider can be found in garden.
24
Phaeacius malayensisPhaeacius malayensis
24. Phaecius (Phaeacius) malayensis Wanless, 1981 Material examined: 1M, day, CXW, 18.07.2011, on leaves, Tawau Gemok Hill. Distribution: Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia Notes: This spider can be found on tree trunks in gardens, mangrove forests and dipterocarp forests.
25
Plexippus paykulli
25. Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 15.08.2011, on tree branch, Semarak Garden. Distribution: South East Asia. Notes: This common spider can be found inside building and human settlements. It can also be found in mangroves, agricultural area and hunt for armyworm
26X 26. Rhene albigera (Koch, 1846) Material examined: 2F, day, CXW, 15.08.2011, on leaves, Semarak Garden. Distribution: India to Japan, Indonesia Notes: This spider is commonly found in gardens.
27X 27. Rhene rubrigera (Thorell, 1887) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 06.10.2011, on leaves, Sungai Tawau. Distribution: Indonesia, India to China, Hawaii Notes: This spider is found in gardens.
28
Thiania bhamoensis Thorell, 1887

Distribution: South East Asia

Notes: This spider build its nest by binding two leaves together using its silk. It tends to wait for its prey that passes by its nest  

8 SPARASSIDAE
29 29. Gnatopalystes kochi (Simon 1899) Material examined: 1F, night, FR, 27.11.2010, on leaves, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area. Distribution: Singapore, Brunei  Notes: It is often found hiding under leaves in gardens and forest.
30 30. Heteropoda davidbowie Jager 2008 Material examined: IF, night, FR, 29.11.2010, on rock, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area Distribution: South East Asia Notes: It is often found sitting very still on leaves in the forest.
31
Heteropoda tetrica
Heteropoda tetrica Thorell, 1897

Found on  Imbak Canyon Conservation Area and on the forest floor, Tawau Hills Park.

Distribution: South East Asia, China Notes: These spiders are commonly seen resting on low vegetation and buttress roots during the night.

32
Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767)

Distribution: South East Asia, China. Notes: The spider waits on lower shrubs and ambushes potential prey that passes by. Mainly found in gardens and dipterocarp forests.

9 TETRAGNATHIDAE
33
Tetragnatha maxillosa Male
Tetragnatha maxillosa Thorell, 1895

Notes: This spider construct orb-web in small groups between four to six individuals. They can be found at heath forests and montane forests.

34
Tetragnatha praedonia Koch, 1878

Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 06.10.2011, resting on leaves, Sungai Tawau. Distribution: Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia, Laos  .

35
Tylorida ventralis
Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877)

Distribution: South East Asia, New Guinea, India, Sri Lanka.
Notes: This common spider is found in garden, mangrove forests and dipterocarp forests. The species feeds on prey from Dermaptera, Homoptera (i.e. Leaf hoppers), Hymenoptera and Isoptera (Alates sp.).

10 THERIDIIDAE
36
Argyrodes flavescens
Argyrodes flavescens Pickard-Cambridge, 1880

Distribution: South East Asia, Sri Lanka
Notes: This spider is usually found on other large spiders’ web.

37
Theridion zebrinum Female
Theridion zebrinum Zhu, 1998

Distribution: South East Asia, China. Notes: This common spider is found in gardens and forests.

11 THOMISIDAE
38
Oxytate virens
Oxytate virens (Thorell, 1891)

Location Bombalai Hill.
Distribution: South East Asia, India. Notes: This spider is normally found in agriculture areas.

12 ULOBORIDAE
39x 39. Philoponella quadrituberculata (Thorell, 1892) Material examined: 1F, day, CXW, 13.11.2011, resting on leaves, Maliau Basin Distribution: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Notes: This spider is normally found in gardens and dipterocarp forests.
40
Zosis geniculatus
Zosis geniculata (Olivier, 1789)

Distribution: South East Asia Notes: It can be found in gardens


Some important Arachnology websites



Spiders have 4 pairs of legs (plus  grow a new leg if they lose one)

All spiders have four pairs of segmented legs, and can grow a new leg if they lose one.
Young spiders can re-grow their legs if they accidentally lose one. The new leg slowly regrow with each molting

However, if it was an adult spider, which has stop molting, it is doubtful he can re-grow his leg.

Photo left : This colorful young jumping spider (4.5 mm female) lost her right hind leg. This does not stop her from jumping and hunting, and a new leg will grown back soon



Spinnerets - The  fingerlike silk glands

Spiders have 4 to 6 fingerlike silk glands called spinnerets beneath their abdomen. The silk comes from inside the spider's body as a liquid thicker than water.

When a spider wants to make a web, it squeezes the silk out of the two small holes at the back of its body called spinnerets. The moment it hits the air, the silk dries into a line that looks like a long strand of silk.


 

SPIDERS OF BORNEO

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